The germination and development of the most popula

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The germination and development of manual engraving and transfer reproduction technology

(from the 26th century BC to the 11th century BC)

as a manual engraving technology for printing plate making, it first appeared in the late Neolithic period of about the 26th century BC. At that time, out of the need to beautify life, people carved or photographed the design symbols on the cave walls and pottery. At that time, people did not and could not have realized that it was these PPGs that have been accompanied by primitive and simple pattern symbols and their budding manual carving technology in the past nine years. In the following thousands of years, through the unremitting efforts of countless sages, they gradually evolved into a manual carving technology for printing plate making, which was the pioneer of printing plate making and made an important contribution to the invention of printing technology

section 1 the germination of manual carving and transfer printing reproduction technology in about the 26th century BC, pottery making technology with monochrome or color patterns existed almost simultaneously in North and South China. Some of the patterns on these pottery are carved, and some are photographed and printed by means of photographing technology. At the same time, there are also hand carving techniques related to the invention of printing, such as symbols inscribed on the cave walls and bark cloth printing. Undoubtedly, these are budding hand carving techniques

I. writing symbols and patterns engraved on walls and utensils

the manual carving technology appeared in the Neolithic period, which is mainly used to engrave original writing symbols and patterns. Archaeological relics unearthed so far show that these written symbols and patterns were first used to engrave on bark, cave walls, stones and pottery. Most of them are found on pottery

the oldest Chinese pottery, whether in the north or the south, is a relic of the Neolithic age. On these ancient pottery, there are patterns, patterns and budding symbols. The picture is a character like symbol on the ancient pottery relics unearthed in Banpo village, Xi'an, about 6000 years ago. The picture is the pattern on the painted pottery unearthed in Xindian, Gansu, a prehistoric site. The picture shows the cloud and thunder patterns and animal face patterns carved on pottery and jade ornaments in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the late Neolithic Liangzhu culture stage. The picture shows four pictographic symbols of the late Dawenkou Culture found at the Lingyang river site in Ju county

these characters, symbols and patterns are depicted and characterized by the times. It is not only the precursor of the birth of Chinese characters, but also the pioneer of manual carving. It is of great significance to the development of Chinese cultural undertakings and should be paid enough attention to

figure of characters and symbols in Banpo village figure of painted pottery patterns in Xindian, Gansu Province figure of cloud and thunder patterns and animal face patterns of Liangzhu culture figure of five pictographic symbols on pottery unearthed from Dawenkou Culture 2. The earliest transfer replica - imprinted pottery in the material civilization of ancient China, there was a kind of pottery called "geometric imprinted pottery" or "imprinted pottery" for short, which was widely used in life at that time. The characteristic of this kind of pottery is that the surface of the pottery is decorated with various geometric patterns and patterns which are arranged or interwoven by lines, and these patterns and patterns are neither depicted nor carved, but printed by using an impression similar to a printing plate. This kind of photo printing technology, including impression (similar to printing plate), photo printing (similar to embossing) and imprinting (replica pattern), is the original form of copy transfer including printing. It has the connotation of manually making impression and obtaining imprinted image through photo printing, which is the first of its kind

the manual carving technology originated from the pottery making process in the early Neolithic age. The earliest pottery making process had a "beating" process. It is a leap in the history of pottery making from beating in the pottery making process to consciously printing patterns and patterns. It was this leap that added decorative patterns to the pottery dishes, which satisfied the people's pursuit of beauty at that time. More importantly, it stimulates people's desire to beautify life and accelerates the development of human civilization

in the early days, the patting and printing technique was to consciously wind straw ropes and other things on the tools such as wooden patting used in pottery making, so that the patted pottery left marks such as rope patterns (Figure). Later, with the development of pottery making technology, people gradually evolved the printing method of winding straw rope, rattan, etc. on the wooden clapper into the carving mold printing technology, which greatly advanced the ancient pottery printing technology

the tool used in the manual photoprinting technology is a wooden clapper, and the earliest wooden clapper is smooth. This kind of wooden racket with a handle cannot be left to this day after 5000 or 6000 years because it is made of wood. From the similar pottery making tools still used in Yunnan minority areas (picture), we can see a spot of ancient pottery making tools - wooden clappers

figure rope pattern

figure pottery making tools: 1, 2 and 3 are wood patting, 4 and 5 are ceramic mats, and 6 are ceramic mats

manual patting and printing of decorative patterns is a process of pottery making process, which is carried out after the green body is patted. During the printing, the left hand holds the inner pad in the inner cavity of the ceramic blank to hold the ceramic blank, and the right hand holds the pat for printing or embossing. The printing is generally conducted from top to bottom. So far, there are many kinds of impressions used for photographing patterns, including pottery impressions (Figure), carved tortoise plates (Figure) and stone impressions (Figure). These impressions vary in length, width and thickness, but they are all engraved with patterns. There are many kinds of patterns, such as cloud and thunder pattern, checkered pattern, diagonal stripe, thick rope pattern, mat pattern, diagonal plus dot pattern, double diagonal pattern, zigzag pattern, leaf vein pattern, feather pattern, cone dot pattern, etc. According to archaeological inference, the impressions at that time should be mostly made of wood. Because wood impression is easy to carve and use, people naturally use wood impression. See the page of ancient printed pottery in southern China, written by Peng Shifan, cultural relics press, 1987. Manual photographing technology has three meanings for the invention of printing: first, the impression used to return to the oil tank is hand carved, and this impression is carefully carved by people, which is quite similar to the engraving plate in printing; Second, the impression on the impression pottery is the imprint transferred from the carved impression on the impression, which is a replica of the impression pattern, and is the first of the transfer replication technology; Thirdly, many of the impression pottery in the Neolithic period are painted pottery, and the pattern is composed of several colors, which must give enlightenment to the color overprint in printing. From the above, it is not difficult to see that whether from the perspective of technology, or from the perspective of principles and assumptions, it is said that the Neolithic age is the source of printing, which is consistent with historical facts. LEGO has been using ABS plastic to produce its landmark building blocks since the 1960s

figure pottery impression figure carving turtle plate stone impression

III. The earliest tree bark cloth printing

the printing related technology that emerged and prevailed in the Neolithic age, in addition to the manually carved character symbols and manually patted patterns, there was also a bark cloth printing process, which was widely used by people at that time

bark cloth printing generally refers to the technology of printing patterns on bark cloth. Tree bark cloth, commonly referred to as Chu bark cloth and hub bark cloth, is also known as tabu, Dabu, dubu and? In China's ethnic minority areas?? Cloth and cloth?? Cloth. According to the biographies of the southern barbarians and southwestern barbarians in volume 116 of the book of the later Han Dynasty, "weaving wood bark and dyeing grass with fruit" refers to the production of bark cloth from bark in ancient times. Generally speaking, tree bark cloth without painting or printing patterns is called tree bark cloth; The bark cloth printed or painted with patterns is called BANWEN cloth, or banbu for short

the technology of printing patterns on tree bark cloth has a very ancient origin. As early as the end of the Neolithic age, China has adopted different control measures. The stone rod of bark cloth made in the Neolithic age and the stone or pottery impression printing the pattern of bark cloth found in South China provide physical evidence for the printing of bark cloth in the Neolithic Age in China

printed with bark cloth, which was first recorded in the Linhai water and soil annals written by Shen Ying. "Taiping Imperial Palace · preface to Dongyi Tiao" cites the following:

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